Evans, S., Ferrando, S., Findler, M., Stowell, C., Smart, C., Haglin, D. (2008). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22(4), 716–721.
|General Methodology||Small, pre-test post-test, non-experimental pilot study.
No control group.
Participants screened for inclusion/exclusion criteria, but otherwise self-selected.
|Participants and Sample Size(s)||11 (6 female, 5 male), mean age = 49 yrs, mean educ = 17 yrs, resulting from first screening 36 applicants down to 12, then dropping 1 from data analysis due to unrelated medical problem.
|Conditions/Manipulations||8-week mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) program
|Dependent Measures included||Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)
Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)
Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ)
Profile of Mood States (POMS)
Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS)
|Other Measures||Anecdotal participant self-reports.
|Results||Before MBCT: |
moderate levels of anxiety (BAI);
pathological degree of worry (PSWQ);
significant levels of anxiety and tension (POMS);
mild levels of depression (BDI);
mindful awareness significantly lower than normal (MAAS)
statistically significant improvement on all scales except the MAAS;
MAAS scores improved to approximately normal, though the change didn't reach statistical significance (due to small sample?);
all participants completed the 8-week MBCT course;
very positive anecdotal stories from participants.
|Discussion/Conclusions||MBCT appears to be “a feasible and acceptable treatment for individuals with GAD” [pg 720];
stronger conclusions not possible because of design, and external validity (generalizability) difficult to predict.